Sulphur - the element

Sulphur (or sulfur) occurs in various forms in nature; in its native or elemental state it is a yellow, crystalline solid.  It is found in the form of mineral sulphides and sulphates, such as galena (lead sulphide) and cinnabar (a sulphide of mercury). In the atmosphere, it is found as sulphur dioxide.  Sulphur dioxide is produced by the burning of various fossil fuels; the levels of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere were very high at one stage before the introduction of various 'Clean Air' Acts and other measures to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from power stations.  It contributed significantly to 'acid rain', which affected many parts of Europe. Different lichens species are sometimes used as indices of sulphur dioxide pollution.

Sulphur is found in all living organisms, where it forms part of the amino acids cysteine and methionine; and also, proteins.  This sulphur is often in the form of thiol (-SH) groups; these are involved in the formation of strong, covalent bonds, known as 'disulphide bridges'.  Proteins often consist of two or more polypeptide chains, and these chains are may be held together by such disulphide bridges.  Proteins like keratin (found in hair, feathers, nails and claws) are rich in sulphur.  Thiol groups form part of other important biological molecules, such as acetyl coenzyme A, which is central to energy generation in cells.  Thiols are also found in the active centres of certain enzymes.  An active centre is the region at which an enzyme binds with its substrate(s) - the molecules on which it acts.

Some bacteria can make use of sulphur compounds producing hydrogen sulphide or 'rotten eggs' gas .  This gas may be produced by the breakdown of organic matter in swamps or sewers.  Hydrogen sulphide has a distinctive smell and is toxic.  After being exposed to the gas for a while, the smell is no longer noticed - the olfactory nerve is over-whelmed; so someone exposed to the gas may succumb to its effects (it affects the process of cellular respiration).  Some have suggested that volcanic eruptions some 250 million years ago triggered a series of events that lead to high levels of hydrogen sulphide in the oceans and air, which in turn resulted in the Permian Extinction.

Comments on this article

ReGuLaS 16 September, 2010

knew practictly none of this, I've nearly done my homework now!

bobmister 23 September, 2010

grrr i seriously need 2 know wot it can be found in!!! :D

Suzanne 26 September, 2010

Thanks.helped me finish my crossword !

caramel bunny 19 October, 2010

cool page is there others like this about elements:)

t 1 January, 2011

i need to know who discovered sulfur,where was sulfur discovered and how was it discovered
help me on that.

ella 4 January, 2011

thanks! helps me with my exam to get into school.

daisy daisy 10 January, 2011

could you do a dead simple intro explaining sulphur in a small nutshell for me and you leo dood who said he needs to know facts, this page is full of them to those who can read

eva 24 February, 2011

what does sulphur do?

bob 21 June, 2011


chhaiya J.D 6 August, 2011

wow i think sul. Is best chdmical in all of .....

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